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Travel and relocation create new vitality in the mind. - Seneca

BUDDHA GAYA TOUR

Brief Introduction: A town and a listed area in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar. The city is a religious place and a pilgrimage site associated with the Mahabodhi temple complex. This is the place where Gautama Buddha attained enlightenment, which became known as the Bodhi tree, the place of attainment of enlightenment (Pali: Bodhi). And it is famous. From ancient times 

 

the Buddhagaya has been a place of pilgrimage and reverence for both Hindus and Buddhists. To Buddhists, Buddhagaya is the most important of the four major pilgrimage sites related to the life of Gautama Buddha, the other three being Kushinagar, Lumbini and Sarnath. In 2002, the Mahabodhi Temple at Buddhagaya became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Pilgrimage means holy place. Every year thousands of devout Buddhist men and women travel to places in our country, India and Nepal, to pay their respects. Pilgrimage brings good fortune as well as geographical knowledge and joy. The great compassionate Tathagata preached in various parts of our country during the long years of his preaching. We consider all those holy places as places of pilgrimage. Pilgrimages: Lumbini Buddhagaya. Sarnath. Kashinagar. Rajgir. Nalanda: The excellence of Vedic education in ancient India played an important role in the establishment of large-scale educational institutions like Takshila, Nalanda, Vikramshila etc. Nalanda Mahavihara was developed in the 5th-6th centuries AD under the patronage of the Gupta emperors and later under the patronage of Harshavardhana, the emperor of Kannauj. Sravasti Vaishali Kausambi Kapilabastu. Brief Introduction to Gaya Airport: IATA: GAY ICAO: VEGY is an international airport located in Gaya, Bihar, India. It is also known as Buddha Gaya Airport. The airport is located 12 km southwest of Gaya city and 5 km away from the temple town of Buddha Gaya, the place where Gautam Buddha attained. It is the second busiest airport in Bihar after Patna. The airport operates permanent pilgrimage flights for pilgrims from around the world from Thailand, Myanmar, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. Air India is the only Indian airline that operates scheduled flights from the airport. How to go from Bangladesh: If you want to go to Gaya from Bangladesh, you can go in two ways. The first is by land and the other is by air. However, you must get a passport. Now let’s talk about Buddha Gaya going to heaven. Different airlines determine the price of their flight in different ways. A passenger will have to pay 6,065 rupees for coming and going. However, the fare may change later, said William Bolter, chief strategic officer of Indigo Airlines. Now the minimum fare for a return ticket of state-owned Biman Bangladesh Airlines on the Dhaka-Kolkata route from Bangladesh is Tk 12,000. Private US Bangla Airlines is charging Tk 10,000, NovoAir Tk 9,999 and Regent Airways Tk 10,000 for round trip. Indigo started its journey in Bangladesh with low rent. Now I am on the ground When you go will depend on you. And no matter where you come from, you have to come to Jessore Manihar first and then to Benapole, but there are different transports from many districts directly to Benapole bus stand. Anyway, this time you will go down to Jessore Manihar and rent an easy bike. Everyone will take 10 rupees. If you reserve with 60/70 rupees, EasyBike will take you directly to the bus counter of Benapole, which means leaving the bus to Benapole from where the place is basically known as bus terminal. However, you can come with an easy bike with 10 rupees because in 5 minutes the easy bike becomes a man. In Jessore, basically an easy bike is taken by 6 people. Now get off the easybike and buy a ticket or get up if there is a seat on the bus. If you don’t have a seat, wait for the next bus and sit down with a seat, but I hope you will get a seat. It takes 12/15 m to go from Jessore Manihar to Benapole bus counter. ## Benapole bus stand is 32 km from Jessore terminal. And the rent will be 55 rupees per person. It will take 1 hour 30 m to 1 hour 45 m. That’s 2:45 p.m. Will arrive in It takes 20/25 minutes to get off the bus and walk to the main gate of Benapole. If you have more luggage or bags, you can rent an easy bike and go to the gate, the rent will be 20/25 rupees. About 1 km. So go by van or easy bike. Each person will take a rent of 5 rupees and if they reserve, they will give 25 rupees and leave. Therefore, from Khulna at 10 o’clock, then at 12 o’clock Jessore, then from Jessore terminal to Benapole in 2:45 minutes, which means 30 minutes more, you will reach at 3:15 minutes. This time the first thing you will do when you go to Benapole is to go to Sonali Bank there. You will get a copy of the tax receipt by depositing a tax fee of Rs.500 per person for travel. The copy will mention 500 rupees, this money you have to pay it is called travel tax. You can also deposit this travel tax in Sonali Bank the day before, but if you know which branch is collecting travel tax, you will be relieved from a hassle. However, if you pay from Benopole, there is a little crowd. You will stand in line and deposit the money and get the copy of the receipt and if you think there is a problem then you will find brokers who will follow you to do this work. If there is no crowd, it will be 20/25 m late. Then the work is almost finished, but there is still a lot left. Now you can keep that tax receipt in your bag or in your pocket. If you want to see the immigration officer, show it. When entering the main gate. However, if you want to see the tax receipt copy inside the passport book, you can easily see it. But don’t give passport to anyone, if you go inside you will find police and brokers, you can give it to them but go with them or stand nearby. And if you don’t want to be able to do all the work by standing in line, it may take 30 m. So now come to the main gate, at the same time two / one police or broker will tell you that brother passport needs to be sealed? If you give it to them, after 5/6 m they will come and tell you with a passport that your work is done, now they will scan your bag or luggage and leave you and you will be able to go straight out of the gate without standing in any line. I check the passport and visa and kill the Departure Seal in the passport. Take a look at it. Departure Naki Arraival seal killed because Departure Seal will be on the way. There is nothing else for this, for this you will take 100 rupees per passport. If you don’t do it, you can stand in line and wait for a while and check, no money will be required. (To do all this, your height can go up to 3:15 or 3:45, which means you can stand in line at the main gate area of India by 3:45.) Now let’s start at the gate of the main area of India where the Indian officer will make you stand in line and give you a small piece of paper or form in your hand and keep it in your hand or pocket. Enter one by one and the normal officers will look at your passport and leave. Then you will walk a little with your bag and luggage through an alley in front. After a few seconds you will enter a big room in India and see many people standing in line. There are 2/3 officers checking one by one whether there is Indian rupee or dollar? You have nothing but dollars and Bengali money. Tell me as many dollars as you have and if you don’t, tell me that there is nothing but Bangladeshi money and what is the purpose of going to India. There is not much trouble there, but if you check the rupee and leave everything, there is a threat. Because you have to change the money and take the rupee after checking and taking pictures of their final immigration. Once you get out of that room, you will see many fences of empty buses like empty space and cow shed which will help you to stand in line by serial maintenance. However, as soon as you set foot there, half a dozen people will come and ask you for the paper or form that everyone gave you when you entered the main gate of India. Fill in the blanks with anyone. Basically you have to fill it up, 7/8 people are there to do this job, they will quickly write your name, passport number, where to go to India, etc. They have to pay 10 rupees for each passport. And keep the place of the sign as it is in your passport. When you have finished your work, take the form in your hand and stand on the bus fence next to it. Little by little you entered a building and then into a room. The main immigration officers are sitting there with a few PCs, you will stand in line and give your passport. They will check your passport with a computer and take a picture of you, take off your glasses when you take a picture and then look straight at the camera or the way they say it. The officers may ask you what you are going for. If you have a medical visa, you will want to see the prescription and appointment letter of the doctor of Bangladesh. After walking out of that room for 1 minute, you will see 3 money exchange houses who are sitting to exchange Bangladeshi rupees or dollars. If you ask the rate and you will pay 100 rupees, you will understand the Indian rupee with the money. Keep money and passport in your pocket to keep it safe. This time, when crossing the final gate, the doorman will check again and leave. This time you set foot on the main road of India where you can see many shops, cars, cars, which means all the people you see are residents of Kolkata. You don’t have to play more than 4:30 to do all this work. This means that when you reach the pitch road in their area, it will be 4:30 in the afternoon. After entering their area you will see many autos, cars and lots of shops. Now get in an auto, 5 people in an auto means 3 people in the back and two people on both sides of the driver will leave if there are 5 people in total, to Bongao railway station. The rent will be 30 rupees per person, they call the rupee money, but the rupee they take is their money in Kolkata. If you want to reserve, if you pay 150 rupees, they will leave immediately and after 20 minutes they will go to “Bongao” railway station and drop you off. You will see the road that you will pass by, which is basically the name of Jessore Road and you will see huge trees on both sides of the road. Bongaon is 8 km from Benapole. You can get out of the car with 150 or 30 rupees, go to the train ticket counter, stand in line and buy a ticket to Sealdah station. Basically this Bangaon station is a local train station. From here the train leaves and travels to Sealdah which is about 90 km. Away. The fare from Bangaon to Sealdah station will be Rs 20 per person. It will take a little more than 2 hours, which means you will reach Benapole at 5:30 pm and reach Bongao Railway Station and Sealdah Station at 8:30 pm to 8 pm. About 90 km from Bangaon to Sealdah station. This time if you get off the train and walk a little, you will find many autos, take an auto and say go to Howrah station. About 4 km from there. Howrah station far away, the fare will take a total of 60/70 rupees, but you can also take 60/100 rupees from many, you will fix the fare and it will take only 15/20 m. Enter the main gate of Howrah station and drop you off. By the way, you reached Howrah station at 8 or 8:30 pm. A total of 23 platforms at Howrah station means that 23 trains can come and go separately. So those who have never been before may feel a little scared or confused and will see thousands of people at Howrah station. There is nothing to be afraid of, we are here, where the train is parked, it means that any train will leave at that time, it is a platform, if you look up a little, you can see 22 or 21 or other digital plates are written in red light, they are the number of the platform. If you look up, there are 22 texts You are standing on platform 22. If you see 23, you will think that you are standing on platform number 23. ** How do you get your train now? The ticket that has been given to you means that you have cut through the agent, the train name, number, seat number, ticket price, your name and the details of where the train will go will be given, but the platform on which the train will get or get is not given. You can find out the number of the platform from the help center or information office. You can get it by walking a little inside at the beginning of the platform number 18/19. Ask them from which platform the train of Chennai will leave, they will tell you after watching the serial that the name of the platform means number 22/23. However, Chennai’s train leaves from platform number 22 or 23. Our train left at number 23. Moreover, 20 minutes before the departure of each train, you will see that there is a notice board on each platform. If your platform is number 23, then go to platform number 23 and spend time sitting there because your train will arrive there just 30/40 m before departure. When the E arrives, the people on the E train will glue a paper with the passenger’s name and train number on the door of each bogie. Before you get on the train, do a little check and see if your name and train number are given there, but there is no benefit in getting up because it will not let you go without a seat and you will not be able to go. Although such mistakes are never common, check them out. And any agent who will give you an online ticket and India train tickets are now online, although if you go to the train station and buy the original ticket, but there is nothing to fear because there is no tension with e-tickets online. Your bogie number will be written on the ticket and you have to find the train bogie. If you buy an AC ticket then bogie B1, B1, B3, A1, A2, A3 can be one of them then you will see And if Slipper’s ticket means non-AC then S1, S2, S3, S4, S5. The S6 will be one of them. The AC carriage has 64 seats and 6 rooms. Each room will be able to sleep comfortably with 6 people. Each buggy has 2 toilets in Ematha and 2 toilets in Omatha and a basin for washing face and hands. This time he got on the train. Now you can find your seat number and sit on the seat and put the luggage down. There will be no problem, but it is better to lock the luggage or bags in advance. Because there is no need to be careful. This time the train left on time. You can eat something at night. You will get all the food in your seat. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me. Veg or Non Veg will ask you here Veg means Vegetables. If you want to eat something related to veg, please ask me. Please tell me what type of veg. item? They can tell you one by one with the price. However, when you take your order, ask them for your seat number and where to get off and keep a note in their notebook. Then after 25/30 m you will come in a packet with your food and you will also get a small glass of water which you will give in plastid glass on time. Now eat and drink and throw the packet in the place of dumping. Leave those packets next to the bathroom / washroom, they will come and take them on time. Now take a nap and relax. You can wake up the next morning, wash your hands and walk for a while, which means you can come from your carriage to another carriage. You can get up in the morning and see through the train window only empty beels and mountains all around. Sometimes people can see. Now it’s time to have breakfast, what do you eat for breakfast? That’s why people will come again and take the list and after 8 o’clock breakfast will come to you. After eating like this, you can sit down and spend some time chatting with the people around you. Then around 10 o’clock the food man will come again and ask and leave with a list of what to eat at noon. Your food will arrive just after 1 p.m. Then eat lunch in the same way + eat dinner and go to sleep. The station will arrive between 4 and 4:30 in the morning and that is the last station. Slowly get off the train with your bagbug. Then get down and wait for 2/3 minutes and keep moving towards the front. However, if you want, you can wait for 1 hour and leave in the morning, but there is no problem in Chennai, you can go to the hotel by auto or taxi at that time. Now let’s go to the hotel by taxi or auto? Since you are new, you can hire a Prepaid Taxi. This means that after getting off the train, there is a small 2/3 booth room just in front of you. Which means it’s about to be the most delusional time of the year, as well. Another type of taxi which is known as private car, you can hire them to go to the hotel without any problem or fear, their fare will be 50/100 rupees less but safe. Or rent an auto and drive straight to Grimes Road, right next to Apollo Hospital. Will take only 130/150 rupees. Up to 4 people can go. Where will you stay? Some of the best places to stay in Buddhagaya. 1. Hotel Bodhgaya Ashok of India Tourism, Contact – 0731400690. 2. Bihar Tourism Hotel Siddhartha Bihar, Contact-07312200445. 3. Hotel Mahayan, Contact – 07312200858. 4. Shanti Guest House, Contact-07312200129. 5. Amrapali Guest House, Contact – 09006364975. . Om Guest House, Contact-09934056497. . Welcome Guest House, Contact – 0731220037.

DARJEELING TOUR

Darjeeling is located in West Bengal, India. This place is located 6100 feet above the ground. The city of Darjeeling stays cold almost throughout the year. This city of Darjeeling is known as the kingdom of clouds. The most interesting place in Darjeeling is: 1. Batasia Loop. 2. Darjeeling Himalayan Railway. 3. Happy Valley T-State. 4. Bengal Natural History Museum. 5. Pagodas 

 

and monasteries. And . Tiger Hill Sunrise. 1. Batasia Loop The Batasia Loop is located just 5 km from the city of Darjeeling. It is one of the train routes in Darjeeling. The train journey through the highest tunnel in the mountains is truly fascinating. This can be a thrilling train journey for you. The natural beauty of this place will captivate your mind. 2. Darjeeling Himalayan Railway Ever been to Darjeeling from Jalpaiguri? The train journey through the hilly curved roads is one of the attractions for all tourists. These trains are steam powered engines. This place is also known as Darjeeling Toy Train. 3. Happy Valley T-State: This is basically a tea garden. It was established in 1854 and is the second largest tea garden in the city of Darjeeling. Everything from this tea garden to the city of Darjeeling can be seen. If you want to visit all the tea gardens, it will cost only 100 rupees from your pocket. And if you want to buy tea leaves, you can also buy it. 4. Bengal Natural History Museum As you can see from the name of the museum, you know that it is a museum. However, this museum is a museum of animals and birds. Next to it is the Himalayan Mountaineering Institute. You can visit this museum with your family. 5. Pagodas and monasteries This pagoda is built in the traditional design of the Japanese. This pagoda is located at an altitude of 10,000 feet above sea level. This is an ancient Buddhist temple. There is a 15 feet high Buddhist statue here. And you can see the prosperity from here too. . Tiger Hill Sunrise: I tell you, once you see the sunrise from here, you will want to see it again and again. This sunrise will undoubtedly take your mind away. The main attraction of this place is the morning sunrise. This place is very interesting for tourists. How to go to Darjeeling from Bangladesh By air- The name of a flight from Dhaka to Kolkata is Bagdogra. You can take this Bagdogra flight and take a taxi directly from Kolkata’s Bagdogra Airport to Darjeeling. Where to stay in Darjeeling All the tourist spots have different quality hotels of different prices for overnight stay. The low-budget accommodation features are: Everest Glory, Dejong Retreat, Hotel Evi Castle, Mountain Soul, etc. You can stay in hotels for between Rs 600-700. A little more in the budget Hotels like Himshikha Homestay, New Singalia Park Homestay, Fraterniti Homestay, Mountain Homestay etc. can be accommodated between 900-2000.

chennai beach tour

How to get to Chennai beach? Eighty-five per cent of those who go to see Chennai City Dr. stay at all the hotels adjacent to Begum Sahib Bazar on E Grimes Road. Because this place is a very busy place and next to it is Apollo Hospital and next to it is Sankar Netralaya Hospital. Moreover, there are many Bengali hotels in this place. 

In this place you will find hotels, innumerable food hotels, raw markets, small fish markets, pottery shops, 8 drug stores, mobile SIM and money load shops and more than 40 air tickets, train ticket agent houses.Then with so many benefits, people will not go anywhere else. Get up at one of the hotels here and leave the hotel one afternoon. If there is anyone with him, take him out too. Now you will get the auto out. Ask Autowalla if I want to go to Marina sea beach (Marina Sea Beach), knows all the auto drivers, then asks Kitna rupee? It will take 100/120 rupees to go and 3 people can go in the car but if there are four people, one person can sit in front so the auto driver may demand 140/150 rupees. However, after getting on the auto, it will take 25/30 m to reach the sea side. As soon as you get out of the car, you will see the number of people. You can see this slope if you go on Sunday afternoon because that day is a public holiday in India. And if you go another day, you will get a lot of people, but less than on Sunday. Now get out of the car and walk through the golden colored sand for some time. Oh well, slippers mean normal sandals when you go to sea. Even if you don’t take good shoes or sandals by mistake, you will not be able to walk long distances because it will be ruined due to sand, so buy a simple pair of sandals for only 100 rupees the day before and you will find it at the market next to the hotel in the afternoon. But if you want you can go by bus. The main gate will drop you to the other side of the main gate of the sea. The bus name is 26J, and the arrival time is 11G. The rent is only 5 rupees. After walking 10 meters from the hotel to the main road, you will see the bus road. There are bus stops, just stop and the bus will actually ask Marina C Bis. If that bus goes that way, you will get up and you will get up as soon as you see the name of the bus. Now walk around happily on the shores of the whole sea, but you may feel a little annoyed because of the sand, as you will not be able to walk hard. There is some dirt around this sea, which means if you walk in the sand, you will see human dirt, but there is not much near the shore. And don’t go too far into the sea because there can be danger and huge waves come. Moreover, since it is a new place, you can get down to your knees and pick up some pleasure. And there is a hill of sand on which you can stand and see the whole sea. But our Cox’s Bazar is the best and beautiful. Because there is no such thing as Cox’s Bazar for sitting on Marina Beach. Some good hotel names: 1। Royal Residency Hotel — gream road Rent: Rs.600 (double bed), Rs.900 (three person bed), good and neat and clean. The elevator will be operational in a few months. There are all kinds of cooking arrangements. 2. Classical Residency Hotel Rent: 600 rupees, 600 rupees. There is a lift. A little in front of the Royal Hotel. There is a porch and cooking facilities. Train ticket information: 1. HOW MASS MAIL Rent: Rs. 2650 (in AC Slipper) Rent on non AC sleeper: 1250 rupees Departure time: 11:45 p.m. Place of departure: Howrah Station Arrive: around 4 am It will take time: 28 hours and 35 minutes 2. Coromandel Express Rent: Same Departure time: 2:30 p.m. Place of departure: Howrah Station Arrive: 26 hours 15 minutes The two trains mentioned above are the only trains from Kolkata to Chennai (Madras).

The royal house tour of india

The name Tripura is mentioned in the ancient epics Mahabharata and Puranas. Tripura is also mentioned in the 14th century Rajmala. This was the story of the Manikya dynasty of Tripura. The Manikya dynasty ruled the region continuously before Tripura became part of India in 1947. It is said that 17 kings ruled the region for about 2500 years.

Tripura was an independent tributary state during the British rule in India. Udaipur in South Tripura was the capital of the former independent monarchy of Tripura. In the eighteenth century, Maharaja Krishna Manikya shifted the capital to Old Agartala, and later in the nineteenth century, the capital moved to what is now Agartala. The nineteenth century is marked by the beginning of the modern era in Tripura as it was during this time that Maharaja Birchandra Manikya Bahadur Devvarma reorganized his administration in imitation of the British rule and carried out various reforms. As a result of the people’s liberation movement in 1949, Tripura became part of the Indian state of Assam. With the partition of India in 1947, the population of Tripura changed drastically and the Bengali refugees from the then East Pakistan became the majority part of Tripura’s population. Tripura was transformed into a Union Territory on 1 January 1983 and was recognized as a full-fledged state on 21 January 1982.

Chakma national identity

The Chittagong Hill Tracts is a district inhabited by various nations with high and low mountains bordering Bangladesh. Natural beauty is one of its features. Surrounded by rivers and mountain forests, this district is a long-lived habitat of various nations and a green land of natural beauty.

Chakma, Mug, Aimurang, Tripura, Riang, Khyang, Banyogi, Kuki, Thanchangya, Chak, Pankho, Khumi etc. are gathered in this hill district. The Chakmas are the majority among them. The inquisitive mind naturally wonders where the Chakmas originally lived and whether they were residents of this district. The Chakmas have been involved in a wide range of historical chapters from time immemorial, including various places in the remote Brahmadesh, Arakan, Champak Nagar, Alikadam, Hill Tripura and Chittagong districts.

    Different theories are seen about the basis of the original identity of the Chakmas. It is known from their various ancient facts and historical accounts of the Chakmas that at one time the Chakma prince Vijayagiri Digvijaya from Champaknagar made expeditions to the hill inhabited areas of Chittagong and Magh, Murung etc. of Arakan region. A few centuries later, he re-entered Chittagong in the fourteenth century. In fact, they are not residents of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The Chakma people have no way of knowing the extent of ancient civilization and knowledge science as revealed by the ancient Vedic scriptures – it is not known until they separated from any nation or country and colonized this Brahma country.

    Although a history of the Chakma race has been written, this book presents various arguments of many librarians: it describes the conclusion reached by the writers on the identity of the Chakma race. No one has been able to determine the identity of the nation in spite of their efforts to find a well-written history book. Authors have often tried to support their own comments about their outward behavior, language, location, anatomy, and body composition.

    In the past, the Chakmas came to Brahma and became known as Chak-Chek or Changmang. Everything is bound to change depending on the country, time and situation. Many speculate that in this case also the people who came from the city of Champak were called Chak-Chek Chakma in Brahma. Differences in pronunciation are manifested from linguistic differences. Similarly, Champak has become Champa and Champa has become Chakma. Now many ordinary Bengalis call the Chakmas Chammua. In places like Brahma, Lusai Hill (Mizo Hill) etc. they were known as ঐ Chak-Chek-Chakma in the past. No text or specimen of the nation known as that can be found in the earlier period of the history of Brahma. But there is also clear evidence that they are not Burmese Burmese.

    It is not possible to determine how many nations of India have merged with other nations in the cycle of crushing state revolution, religious revolution etc. Due to these reasons, it has not been possible to maintain the purity of blood in many nations. The history of the radiant Buddhist era of ancient India is a shining example of this. Throughout the ages, history has reminded the nation of its ups and downs of the past and various details of its politics. Thus it is not impossible for a nation as small as the Chakmas to lose or completely disappear in this way.

    According to the ancient national history of the Chakmas, various texts on the nation can be traced back to the time they ruled northern India and the Brahmaputra river valleys at the same time, and from there gradually spread the kingdom to the south. At one point his pace was suspended for some time at a place called Kalabagha in Assam. It is unknown at this time what he will do after leaving the post. However, how they finally conquered the hill tribes of the southern region by waging war in a special case from Champak Nagar in that region and over time the successive king Sirattama Chak at one time spread the perimeter of the kingdom and became famous as an ideal king is still narrated in history.

    Although two or more Yoga sources were found in the expedition, the North Indian sources cited as evidence of environmental events and various geographical locations are the only direct evidence of the events of the war. Probably because of the persecution of the situation, they split into two parts and spread two branches. It has a geographical connection to the conquest campaign, though not detached from historical action, but it has created a misconception in the minds of the people.

In this case there is historical evidence of the existence of the Chakmas in Brahma from the post-medieval period onwards, as there is a similarity between the alphabets of neighboring Cochin, China, Shyam, and the dailies of northern Brahma, awaiting further in-depth research. And the history of Brahma proves that Chakmas are in the daily race.

[Many are unaware of the national identity of the Chakmas. It is the responsibility and duty of everyone to know the ethnic identity. So we need to inform our generation. Sharing this blog is very important if you want to let others know. It will benefit you, the generation and everyone. ]

The ancient civilization of the Chakma nation

Through history and literature, the main way to get information about the events of a nation is very ancient. Chakma nation historian Satish Chandra Ghosh is seen on the first page of his book. Vague opinions of foreign librarians. Those who want to prove that the Chakmas belong to the primitive barbaric class of the hill region.

In order to know the glorious deeds of the ancient Buddhist era, the practice of religious literature such as Tripitaka and Jataka is essential, similarly the ancient civilizations of Muslims and Hindus are identified by the ancient religious texts like Qur’an, Hadith etc. and Vedas, Puranas etc. In different eras, the form of national life has been revealed through literature. But the Chakmas have no such authentic text. However, this country is not in our hands now. Since the real name of the nation has also been lost and the present name “Chakma” is a corruption of one of the medieval titles given by the Brahmins.

    Therefore, in order to understand the ancient civilization of the Chakmas, one should not ignore the factual information about their original habitat, ups and downs, relocation, etc., their ancient folk-literature, legends, scriptures, religious texts, history, etc., and their various artifacts. Although credible evidence that they were once part of a particular nation is still to be found, the fact that the name of this nation has been lost in the midst of a catastrophic catastrophe requires traveling to many possible places and coming in contact with many nations. Although it has not been possible for me to spend as much money and time as I need, I have tried my best to justify it as much as possible.

    Where did the Chakmas come from and where did they originate in the significant books found in the Chittagong Hill Tracts about different tribes and Chakmas? Many libraries have shed light on that. But in determining the true identity of this nation, it was not possible for them to reach a definite conclusion.

This is discussed in detail in the next chapter of the book. Therefore, all these libraries have expressed various inconsistencies about the identity of this nation due to errors in the main subject. In the case of the identity of any nation, both faults and virtues have a prominent part. Only concealing faults or virtues ঃ a one-sided judgment proves the incompetence of the name of history. Some such historians did not want to acknowledge the ancient civilization of the Chakma nation at all. Moreover, with the one-sided attitude of the foreigners, they have portrayed them as a hill-wild race. It is undoubtedly to be especially helpful to review the literature of a nation with its past history in writing the history of that nation. But the Chakma society was likely to be aware of the interesting information contained in the material of the literature preserved in ancient folklore, manuscripts and manuscripts; They did not try to collect that information. Moreover, a large part of the glorious chapter of this nation has remained unknown to the Chakmas in the medieval Brahmanical history. Or they did not mention it for whatever reason, despite knowing it.

In this Chittagong Hill Tracts, there is enough information about Chakma’s genius in folklore, Chadigang Chhara Pala, Gojen Lama, Agartara, Radhaman Dhanpudir Pala, Barmas, Talik Shastra, Ubogit, Sadengiri Upakhyan, Gyan Pradeep, Fakiri Kalam etc. There is. It contains a collection of various literatures such as philosophy, ethics, religious rituals, medical scriptures, hymns, historical information, etc. The hint of the ancient civilization of the Chakma nation, which can be traced back to these rich literary specimens, can never be ignored. The ancient mainstream of every nation is the literature of its past. And while those works are, in many places, ancient legends, history cannot ignore them. Because the original history of every nation in the pre-historic era is in many places just a collection of oral stories. The aforesaid literature is closely related to the language, thought and character of the Chakma people. Many times the possibility of revealing historical information through it is also immense. Nowadays, due to the influence of time, those ancient literatures are no longer so popular in the society, but they have not yet become extinct in the life of this nation. These books, pachali, poems etc. are written in Chakma Bengali language. If read or listened to carefully, it will seem to be a distorted Bengali language. However, Agartara is written in a distorted Pali and Brahma language.

 All the verses of Gojen Lama written by the pious poet Shivcharan Chakma are a combination of beautiful hymns and adoration. All the songs have been composed in full. Dr. Benimadhab Barua MA, Former Professor, University of Calcutta; D-Litt commented on Gojen Lama, the lyricist of Saint Shivcharan, in the journal Garika; The composition of the lyric poems is simple, easy, touching and deeply emotive in places. Although their language is Bengali, the Chakma is molded into spoken language. There is no difficulty in writing. The implicit implications are natural, excellent in inspiration. The longing for life that is repeated in the songs is the pain of the secluded heart of the entire Chakma Buddhist nation. In this remark of Dr. Benimadhab Barua, we can conclude that there was no shortage of knowledge-loving and literary people among the Chakmas even before three hundred years. The time of that sad poet was yesterday in the sixteenth century.

Sadly, foreign librarians have been reluctant to acknowledge these ancient civilizations of the Chakma people, or in some cases have interpreted the opposite without acknowledging any effort to discover information on the subject. It has to be admitted that the foreign historians do not belong to the barbaric class, even though they have long been unable to keep pace with the Chakma due to lack of education and geography. The Chakma language is not incomprehensible to Bengali speakers like the Garo, Mug, Tripura, Murung or Kuki languages. But they too have been living in contact with the Bengalis for centuries. In addition, the Chakma language has a combination of about 80 percent Bengali and Sanskrit words. In every past census, the Chakma language has been given the title Chakma-Bengali. Sanskrit has an influence due to its close resemblance to Assamese language. Since Sanskrit has a strong influence on Assamese language.

Today, the Chakma language alphabet is on the verge of extinction. His literature has been with the alphabet of Chakmas since ancient times. Although the Chakmas have so far been referred to as a tribe, they are deeply significant because of the existence of their separate alphabet in the field of language. This is the first time I’ve read a book on the subject, and it’s the first time I’ve read a book on the subject.

”  A Broken Dialect of Bangali”. It is almost worthy of the dignity of being classed as a separate language. It is written in an alphabet which, allowing for its curive form is almost indentical with Khimar character, Looas, Annam, Seam and at least in Southern Burma. It is not necessary to give a detail account of Chakma Grammar, which closely resemble that of Chittagong.

The Brahmanical alphabet has a lot in common with the Chakmas. Needless to say, the Burmese influence will spread over them. However, it is undeniable that it is ever possible to have an alphabet or literature among the barbaric nations.

    Although they lived for centuries with Burmese who spoke a completely different language during their stay in Burma, the language did not change much. However, it is assumed that all the tasks of their practical life had to be done in the local language in the past. For that reason, even if they had a caste in the past, it has become extinct with the change of various conditions. The present alphabet seems to have been formed in imitation of the countries mentioned or the native alphabet. In the course of time, the present alphabet is also on the verge of extinction. This is the way of life of the ever-changing human society. Legend has it that at that time they used palm leaves and altaya leaves or sacrificial paper. And in time the king’s orders were preached on animal skins. With this the current alphabet appears.

    Mr. Noaram Chakma Mahasaya has already prepared a book in the Chakma alphabet called Chakma Pattham Shiksha. His efforts are especially commendable. He is committed to recovering almost the lost property of the nation.

    It has been a reckless act to call a nation that has had an alphabet and literature since ancient times and a history of domination in different parts of the country at one time barbaric barbarians. In ancient India, in the religion revolution, in the social revolution, how many ancient stories are almost extinct today and how many nations and societies have disappeared in the cycle of time, who keeps track of them? We know that the Arakanese and Burmese histories of Tripura’s history Rajmala and Sri Sri Rajnama are intertwined with the long history of the Chakma dynasty as a symbol of the nation. Therefore, without proper evidence and examination, no definite conclusion should be reached on the opinion of those foreign historians.

At a time when Askadesh (Arakan border) was conquered by the Chakma prince Vijayagiri of Champak Nagar, they gradually expanded their kingdom and established colonies there. Arakan and a prosperous Chakma state in northern Brahma gradually emerged in the wonderful mystery of time. Many memories have been lost in the path of national life – many bright images. Yet today, from across the horizon, the history of Brahma (Chuijong-ka-thang), the history of Arakan (Dengawadi Ared Phung) testifies to the ancient history of the Chakma nation, the memory of that mighty nation of Brahma. The nation which at one time had subjugated an independent nation like Brahma and ruled over different parts of the country for more than five centuries was able to rule the state with a chain of command. They cannot be thought of as insignificant tribes. What kind of catastrophe they have fallen into, what they have been forced to do in the present situation, and what their pre-existing condition has been, and from which nation they have been separated and turned into the present subplot and underdeveloped stage, is a matter of proof.

    When the Mengadi king of Brahma invaded Manijgiri, the capital of the Chakma king Arun era (young people of Brahma) of northern Brahma, in 1333 AD (695 Maghi).

Historically, this is also proved by the fact that in 1118/19 AD (480 Maghi), the adventurous Chakmas, along with the Bengalis, joined hands with the powerful Pegu emperor Alangchisur of Brahma to destroy the famous Pegu Empire twice in a row. No mention was made of who this Bengali was. At that time, from the seventh century onwards, Brahmanism re-emerged in India in the aftermath of the revolution over Buddhism. That revolution came to an end in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The Buddhists, who were doomed in that revolution, lost their ancient civilization and glory due to the oppression and persecution of the infidels and were forced to flee in different directions and save their lives. At that time some Hindu kings spread their kingdoms in Assam and Kamrup. Kamrup was then the center of the introduction of Brahmanical religion in Assam. At that time a Hindu king may have tried to establish an Indian colony in Arakan indirectly in association with the Brahmanical Chakmas. Or the Chakmas, reluctant to maintain their dominance in Brahma at that time, enlisted the help of foreign Bengalis.

    After the twelfth century, the Buddhist Pala kings became weak. In the ensuing period, the Sena kings became strong with the Brahmanical religion. In that revolution many Bengali Buddhists took refuge in Arakan through Nepal, Tibet and Chittagong. At that time the glorious memory of “Pandit Bihar” was formed in Chittagong in the ninth century. It seems that many Bengali Buddhists took refuge in the Chakma king of Arakan. Because they were Buddhists. Probably the Chakmas, including the Bengalis, became the rivals of the Burmese king in the invasion of the Pegu Empire. It is known in the ancient history of Chakma that the battle took place in 1118 AD under the command of the Bengali chief Sardar, the Chakma king of Brahma. At that time they would not have dared to fight against the Pegu Empire if they were not a developed and influential nation in Brahma.

Historical evidence of this is found again 150 years ago, when Na-Singh-Na-Tain ascended the throne of Arakan with the help of the Chakmas during the mighty state revolution of Arakan in 994/95 AD. These incidents, which are intertwined with history, are a perfect reflection of the Chakmas’ identity as an influential nation in Burma in the past. At one time during the predominance of the Chakmas, Bengali and Barua Miliya formed a meeting place in Brahma. The minister of the Chakma king Buddhangiri was a Bengali. The time of Buddhangiri was approximately the tenth century. Barua was the chief commander of the Chakma king Janu in the fifteenth century. In 1596, he appointed Chathowai Barua as his commander in the battle of Tangu and Shyam.

    Chakma is a mixed language. It has the natural imprint of Bengali, Sanskrit, Asami and Magadhi. However, there is such a similarity with the Bengali language that it can be called a corruption of the Bengali language. It is understood that the Chakmaras came in more contact with the Bengalis. Or the original residence of the Chakmas was in a case where the language was similar to Bengali and it can be inferred that the Chakmas were gradually migrating from their original home to many countries. It is still seen that even among these small number of Chakmas, many have migrated permanently to the hills of Tripura and Lusai Hill and are gradually becoming isolated from each other. After hundreds of years, the language of each other may not be understood. For example, there is a linguistic difference between the Task of Thek and the Chakmas of the present day Burma. In the past they were known as the same Chakma nation in Brahma.

It is known from the history of the Chakma nation that the original homeland of the Chakmas was Champaknagar. However, we hear about the location of 3/4 Champak Nagar. Among them are North Brahma (Shan), ancient Magadha, present-day Bihar, Kalabagha (present-day Srihatta), ancient Malacca (present-day Malay), Cochin, Champa in China, and another region on the banks of the ancient Sangpu River (present-day Brahmaputra) in the foothills of the Himalayas. Therefore, different doctrines are seen in the origin of their ancestor Vijayagiri from which Champaknagar to Brahma. Many in the Chakma community believe that the Champaran kingdom was found in the past near ancient Magadha or near present-day Bhagalpur in northern Bihar. At one time, the Champa Chakma prince reached Brakshma on a campaign of conquest. And the Oxdes of Arakan conquered the kingdom of Rowang and did not return to the patriarchal kingdom.

    The kingdom established by Prince Vijayagiri of Champa was the first Chakma kingdom in Brahma. সাThe Saprikul of Lower Arakan was their first capital. In the end, all of them, including their soldiers and followers, got married to a local woman and settled there.

    Similar details are found in Buddhist literature. At one point, a Champa prince, along with many of his attendants, set sail for Tamralipta (present-day Tamluk) and sailed to Brahma (ancient golden land). A similar doctrine is found in the history of Brahma written by Colonel Freire. At one time a prince of Varanasi (now Benares) arrived in Brahma with many attendants. Finally, those who want to stay permanently in Brahma are given a check-check title.

    Again the Chakma Ganghuli have described the resemblance of these two princes to the victory of the Chakma prince in the song of ancient folk literature (Ganghuli song).The song explains that the Chakma prince crossed the vast sea with his attendants. He then concluded the national puja by offering ghritahuti when he was in favor of the Roang country. It is a prominent Hindu ritual and the patron of Brahmanical religion. The ancient folk songs and reformations of the Chakmas prove that at one time he used to hold his upabit and use a headdress.

    In the language of these ancient songs, it seems to be a close relative of the Bengali language. Satish Chandra Ghosh Mahasaya has mentioned in one place in the book Chakma Jati that “the claim of Kshatriyattva in these ancient rituals of Chakmas is to be acknowledged to a lesser extent”.

    R.H.Hutchinson ” An account of Chittagong Hill Tracts “mentions on page 69 of the book” The Tribes conder themselves descendants of emigrants from Bihar who came over and setteled in these parts in the days of the Aracanise King “

In favor of these various events, the ancestral conquest of the Chakmas and his followers came from northern India, making it all the more probable. Perhaps that is why the Chakma language is accompanied by the imprints of the ancient Magadhi and Bengali languages.

    Vijayagiri and his followers came to this country and were forced to take water from different classes of women. It gradually changed everything in the blood and rituals of different nationalities and within a hundred years the Chakmas became a fancy nation. At that time Arakan was relatively underdeveloped. In this, it is not possible for their original national characteristics to remain intact. That is why Satish Chandra Ghosh Mahasaya has mentioned in one place in the book Chakma Jati that “their national name was not saved even after going to Brahma.” But sadly, there is no sympathy in ancient history for this backward nation. There is no mention of why historians have excluded them from their discussion. For that reason we see various instances of the native naming of the Chakma kings in Brahma. Another example is the influence of Brahma on the Chakmas. We know from Burmese history that at one point in the late thirteenth century, the then Burmese king Kamrui invaded Mozambru, the capital of the Chakma king Maichang (the Brahmins say Manchui), probably because the Chakmas did not want to practice Buddhism. It seems that the Chakmas may have followed the Hindu Brahmanical religion even then. Religion also evolved in many places depending on the time and place. রাজধান The tragic defeat of the war resulted in the collapse of the capital. As a result, the state power of the Chakmas in Brakshmedesh became very exhausted. It seems that due to the multifaceted influence of time, they may not have been able to convert to Buddhism even then. There is no denying that change has occurred in human society over the ages.

    It is undeniable that the Chakmas were the first to come from the city of Champak, and that in the course of time they were at one time influential in different stages of war, change of place and events. But some foreign libraries have described their origin as only three hundred years old.

    The Rangmamati exhibition that displays all the Chakma fabrics every year is an authentic example of the weaving industry of the past. It seems that no one in the present Chakma society can say when the Alam invented the designs of flowers that are made from the Alam. Since in the ancient Radhaman Dhanpudi’s Pala song the names of the flowers displayed in that alam are mentioned.

    By all those historical evidences and various facts we find among the ancient Chakmas their own alphabet, history, literature, morphology, religious scriptures and everything.

    With a lot of money, labor and good use of time and patience, it seems that there is still a possibility of discovering such valuable information if it can be researched by a competent person. If Mohenjo-daro or Harappa in the Punjab had not been discovered before 1920, would the world have recognized the oldest civilization today? After the discovery of Mohenjodaro and Harappa, the ancient Aryan civilization was covered with darkness even before the ancient Aryan civilization.

    If we understand their past history, it is known that in the cycle of events, many wars, many changes of places and special events, only in the land of Brahma for more than five centuries, they were divided and gained status in many places. At that time, due to the persecution of different conditions, many tribes came in contact with each other and their customs, rituals and nature evolved at the level of underdeveloped class. The extreme condition that the nation has reached in the middle of the last few centuries is directly responsible for the disappearance of their ancient heritage.

    The course of history of the Chakmas in the age of the ancient unknown civilization which has been a sign of uninterrupted connection in the history of Brahma. Although we are aware of the factual information about it, it is still awaiting discovery and research. It may no longer be possible to accurately determine how many bright images of the story seem to have been lost in the light-dark path of their ancient history. Although they are now known as underdeveloped tribes with various dynamic evolutions of the past, the authentic signature of their national existence has been in various histories.

 

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